Simple definitions of difficult terms


Administrative Contact/ admin-c: The Administrative Contact (admin-c) is the natural person appointed by the Domain Holder to act as his/her authorized representative and who also has the authority and duty to take binding decisions in all matters concerning the domain and who is thus the contact for the respective NIC. Generally one admin-c may be appointed for each domain. The full postal address etc. details of the admin-c must be provided. In some countries the Domain Holder and the admin-c must be the same entity.

Authorized Agent: Authorized Agents are domain name registrars licensed by the registry or a ccTLD registrar to register domains for companies or private persons.

Billing Contact/ Billing-C: The Billing Contact (billing-c) looks after the billing and payment aspects of the domain. The NIC/Domain Registry sends the invoices to the Billing Contact and consults any further matter regarding payment of a domain.

Brand/ Brand Name: Specific product within a category, as indicated by an identifying mark or name. The brand name is the distinctive name of a product, the word part of a trademark or the name of the manufacturer. A brand name may or many not be same as the company name. Examples: Mercedes, McDonalds, Colgate etc.

Company registration certificate: This is a proof of valid business registration registered at the local chamber of commerce, courts or any designated authorities.

Country Code top-level domains/ (ccTLD): As the name rightfully suggests, these kind of top level domains are related with a particular country. Country code domains are created to be used by individual countries. These are the Examples => .de for Germany, .ke for Kenya, .br for Brazil, .in for India and .il for Israel etc. For more information, see the Index of ccTLD code.

Dispute Resolution Provider: A Dispute Resolution Body authorised to resolve the domain-name dispute issues.

DNS: The Domain Name System (DNS) helps users find their way around the Internet. Every computer on the Internet has a unique address called its "IP address" (Internet Protocol address). Because IP addresses (which are strings of numbers) are hard to remember, the DNS allows a familiar string of letters (the "domain name") to be used instead. So rather than typing "," you can type

Domain: A group of computers and devices on a network that are administered as a unit with common rules and procedures. Within the Internet, domains are defined by the IP address. Example: Instead of typing 62.168.1952.1 in the browser, one can type That means the person types in the DOMAIN name in the browser.

Domain administration: Domain administration includes update of domain data, such when a change of address has occurred, or deleting the domain. Domain holders get their domains administered by provider.

Domain Applicant: A domain applicant is an entity or a natural person who have submitted an application for delegation of a particular domain. If it has been delegated the respective domain, the domain applicant will become a Registrant.

Domain deletion: Domain deletion means permanent removal of the existing domain records from the NICs' system and or database.

Domain registration: Domain registration is the process of registering domains through a provider or directly with a NIC. Once you have registered a domain, you become a domain holder.

Domain Holder: The Domain Holder is NIC's contractual partner and thus holds the material rights to the domain. The full postal address etc. details of the Domain Holder must be given. If required, the contact person's details representing the domain holder must also be provided.

Domain in Dispute: A conflict of interests related to the ownership of a domain can be defined as domain dispute. Generally, the so-called lawful owner challenges the existing domain owner, claiming his or her rights on the name.

Domain Maintainer: The provider/agent/registrar at NIC-IT, Italy is called domain maintainer. Only the domain maintainers have access to the NIC-IT system for registration, modification, deletion, transfer purposes.

Domain Owner: See Domain holder

Domain Reseller: Reseller is the entity who resells the domains. Here the term re-selling itself implies that the reseller is a party between the original domain issuing authority and the end customer. There might be one or more resellers in the process. Example: Addidas requests their provider company ABC to register ‘’ domain in Denmark. The company ABC checks the requirement and finds out that they need an agent, authorised by the DK-Hostmaster, the domain issuing authority, to register a domain in Denmark. They come to know that Consultix is one of the Agents and hence they contact Consultix to register ‘’. Consultix registers the domain with DK-Hostmaster and informs ABC. ABC informs their client. In this process, company ABC acted as a reseller of the domain.DK-HostmasterConsultix GmbHABCAddidas.

Domain transfer: The term "Domain transfer" is used when ownership and tech-c of a domain are transferred from one party to another. Generally, the new owner will have his/her new provider and thus the domain changes the hands from old owner and old provider to new owner and new provider.

Domain Update: Update is merely a change in the existing information of the existing parties. Thus it must be distinguished from any kind of ownership change.

Domicile Address: This term is used by SIDN, the .nl allocation authorities, the Netherlands. Foreign companies are allowed to register .nl domains but they have provide with a address located in the Netherlands, where the necessary communication can be sent by SIDN. This address does not play any other role as admin-c or so.

EU trademark/OHIM: The European Community trade mark gives its proprietor a uniform right applicable in all Member States of the European Union on the strength of a single procedure which simplifies trade mark policies at European level. The Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market promotes and manages trade marks and designs within the European Union.The Office was created under European Community law and is a European Community body with its own legal personality. It shares with the courts in Member States of the European Union the task of pronouncing judgment on requests for invalidation of registered titles.

Expiry date: Every registered domain is registered for a specific time period. The end of service/registration period is the expiry date. In time renewal of the domain makes sure that the expiry date being extended.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP): FTP is used to transfer data from one computer to another over the Internet, or through a network. There are many existing FTP client and server programs. For example, FTP servers can be set up for game servers, voice servers, internet hosts, and other.

Generic top-level domains/(GTLD): These kinds of domains are created for the internet public. Anybody from any country can apply for GTLD, provided certain conditions are met. Examples =>.aero, .biz, .com, .coop, .edu, .gov, .info, .int, .mil, .museum, .name, .net, .org, and .pro.

Handle/Handle code: Handle/Handle code is nothing different than a code of saved record, which can be used again and again. Thus once the handle code has been created there is no need to type in the same information next time for the same function. Generally a code consists of the company name, address, tel. number, fax number, email address. This can additionally be combined with the name of the contact person.Example: Consultix registered domain in Denmark for Beiersdorf AG, Germany. At the time of registration the data of the owner has been entered. Now Beiersdorf wants to register a second domain with the same details. In this case, based on the previous information used for say a handle BA-007 has been created. For the purpose of second domain registration i.e., we will just insert the handle BA-007, whereby the DK-Hostmaster system will automatically come to know that they are the details of Beiersdorf AG, Germany.

ICANN: The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is an internationally organized, non-profit corporation that has responsibility for Internet Protocol (IP) address space allocation, protocol identifier assignment, generic (gTLD) and country code (ccTLD) Top-Level Domain name system management, and root server system management functions. These services were originally performed under U.S. Government contract by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and other entities. ICANN now performs the IANA function. As a private-public partnership, ICANN is dedicated to preserving the operational stability of the Internet; to promoting competition; to achieving broad representation of global Internet communities; and to developing policy appropriate to its mission through bottom-up, consensus-based processes.

Internet Service Provider (ISP): An Internet Service Provider is an organization that offers consumers or businesses access to the Internet and related services. In addition to Internet access via various technologies such as dial-up and DSL, they may provide a combination of services, including Internet transit, domain name registration and hosting, web hosting and other.

IP Address: An IP Address is a unique computer address that certain electronic devices use in order to identify and communicate with each other on a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol (IP) standard.

KK: For the domain transfer from one provider to another, word KK is used by DENIC, the .de ccTLD allotting authority. It comes from the German word ‘Konnektivitätskoordination’.

LATEACK: The term LATEACK means Late Acknowledged. This term is used in reference with .de domains operations. Whenever a provider change takes place, the new provider has to send the request for the change of provider. If the old provider (or better said the current provider) wants to reject the provider change, he/she gives NACK to the request. More ever, the old provider can later on give his acceptance, which is termed as LATEACK (and not ACK).

Letter of Assumption: This term is used by NIC-IT, Italy. The applicant of the domain has to send a kind of letter specifying they accept the terms and conditions etc.

Licensee: This term is used by the .be allocation authority from Belgium. Licensee is the domain owner entity.

Madrid Protocol: In order to avoid the need to register separately with each national or regional office, WIPO administers a system of international registration of marks. This system is governed by two treaties, the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks and the Madrid Protocol. A person who has a link (through nationality, domicile or establishment) with a country party to one or both of these treaties may, on the basis of a registration or application with the trademark office of that country, obtain an international registration having effect in some or all of the other countries of the Madrid Union. At present, more than 60 countries are party to one or both of the agreements.

NACK: The term NACK means Not Acknowledged. This term is used in reference with .de domains operations. Whenever a provider change takes place, the new provider has to send the request for the change of provider. If the old provider (or better said the current provider) wants to reject the provider change, he/she gives NACK to the request.

Name Server: When a domain is called in the Internet, special computers, known as name servers, assume the task of translating it into the corresponding IP address. This makes it possible for a user to access a website by typing in the domain name instead of the website's actual IP address.

NIC: National Information Center allocates the IP/Domain for that particular country.

NIC-Agent: See Registrar

Non-refundable fee/deposit: This kind of deposit/fee is not given back, irrespective of whether the purpose is fulfilled or not fulfilled. This kind of one-time non-refundable fee is charged by several TLD authorities at the time of becoming authorised agent/registrar.

NSEntry: When ensuring domain connectivity, there is an alternative of linking up to five services on the NIC’s own name servers that have something to do with your domain, such as or directly with the IP address of the host or a mail server through which this service is handled. Such links are known as "NSentries”.

Owner change: The term "Owner Change" is used when ownership of a domain is transferred from one party to another. This is also called as Registrant change.

Power of Attorney Letter: In certain countries, the foreign applicant of the domain has to give all the rights to the local party in the country of registration for the purpose of domain registration. This letter is called power of attorney letter. This is especially required in Bosnia Herzegovina (.ba).

Privacy Policy: When a Domain Name is registered, certain information is collected for use on the WhoIs service. The WhoIs Service allows internet users to query a Domain Name to find out the identity and contact details of the Registrant. The public WhoIs service is a standard feature of Domain Name systems around the world. The ccTLD administrators set out the guidelines on the collection, disclosure and use of WhoIs data.

Provider change: The term "Provider Change" is used when administration of a domain is transferred from one provider to another. This is same as Tech-C change.

Redirect: A redirect is a command that tells the browser to go to another page after a certain amount of time. Redirects are often used when a URL has changed. For Example, if you type in your browser and if you are taken to another site, than in this case has been redirected to

Refundable Deposit: This is a deposit that is given back, once the purpose of the deposit comes to an predefined or sudden end.

Registrant: See Domain holder

Registrant Warranty Statement: By submitting your application for a domain name, you hereby confirm that you are eligible to hold the domain name set out in the application, and that all information provided in the application is true, complete and correct, and is not misleading in any way. If any of the information is later found not to be true, or is incomplete, incorrect, or misleading in any way, or if you have submitted the application in bad faith, the Domain Name licence shall be cancelled and you shall permanently lose the use of the Domain name.

Registrar: Registrar is the entity authorised by the TLD allocating authority to perform the necessary actions regarding domain registration, modification, deletion and payment etc. issues. Only the registrars are authorised to contact the NIC directly. Many countries appoint registrars to avoid unnecessary communication with many parties, to save time, to save money and to bring overall efficiency in the domain operations.Example: If Addidas wants to register a domain name in Denmark. They cannot apply directly to the DK-Hostmaster. They have to apply through a registrar.

Registration Date: Registration date of a domain is the date from which the domain name has been connected with NIC’s system.

Registrant Change/Ownership: Refers to the transfer of all the rights and duties of the nominated domain name to another designated person/company. Registrant changes may be required for various reasons, such as changes of company structure, sale of a businesses and legal disputes.

Registry: See NIC

Renewal: A domain can be registered either FREE of cost or as per the NIC/Agent FEE conditions. Almost more than 90% of the countries and domains fall in the paid category and not for free.If the NIC/Agent charges some fee for the domain, it is for a defined period only. Generally the period covered within the fee is of 1 year, 2 years or 5 years. To retain the domain name ownership, one has to pay for the domain, before the expiry date.  This function of keeping the domain registration effective for a longer period is called renewal.

RIPE NCC: Reséaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre takes care of Maintenance of a database for all IP and AS network numbers and delegates IP addresses for Europe.

Set-up Fee: Set-up fee is a one-time fee charged by the respective TLD allocation authority at the time of registration of a domain.

Sunrise Period: Sunrise Period is generally the period with specific conditions for NEW domain registration. Generally after the sunrise period, the domain registration is open for all. Typically the sunrise period can be a few days up to a few months.

Tag-Holder: This term is used by NOMINET- the .uk allocation authority from the U.K. NOMINET tag holders are able to process domain name applications through the automated registration system - the automation - which means that domain names can usually be registered in a matter of seconds. Tag holders are able to register, modify, query, renew and change TAG using the automated system.

Technical Contact/tech-c: The Technical Contact (tech-c) looks after the technical side of the domain. The tech-c may be either a named natural person or a group of people. The full postal address etc. of the Tech-C must be provided.

Template: A fixed pattern used to create same kind of documents. The template can be used to perform the functions like registration, modification, transfer and deletion. Every time the user needs to fill in the information in the predefined format, predefined layout or in a particular pattern to get the successful results by sending the template.

Top-level Domains/(TLD): There are two types of top-level domains, generic and country code, plus a special top-level domain (.arpa) for Internet infrastructure. Generic domains were created for use by the Internet public, while country code domains were created to be used by individual countries as they deemed necessary.Top-Level Domain (TLD), Generic (GTLD), Country Code (ccTLD).

Trademark: A name, word, symbol, or device that allows the trademark owner to dictate its use in identifying a product, e.g, logos and brand names. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. Trademarks may be one or a combination of words, letters, and numerals. They may consist of drawings, symbols, three- dimensional signs such as the shape and packaging of goods, audible signs such as music or vocal sounds, fragrances, or colours used as distinguishing features.

Webspace: Webspace, also known as webhosting or nethosting, refers to the disk capacity of a server for storing files that can be permanently accessed on the Internet.

WHOIS: WHOIS is just a tool to look up the registration data of the domain. This may contain (but it must not always be) the full information of the domain name applicant, admin-c, billing-c, tech-c, servers, date of registration, date of modification and expiry date etc.

WIPO: The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is an international organization dedicated to promoting the use and protection of works of the human spirit. It administers 23 international treaties dealing with different aspects of intellectual property protection. The Organization counts 182 nations as member states.

Zone Administrator/zone-c: The Zone Administrator (zone-c) looks after the name servers for the domain; he/she is subject to the same rules as the tech-c.


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